Usually when one hears about Russian government policies on family planning, one hears about efforts to raise birth rates and expand family size.
However, North Caucasus Federal District is a whole other story. Republics of Dagestan, Chechnya, and Ingushetia all have very high fertility rates (4 children per woman in Chechnya, over 3 for other two), which has resluted in a demographic explosion, with Chechnya growing from 1,103,686 people in 2002 to 1,268,042 in 2010; Dagestan jumping from 2,576,531 to 2,737,313; and Ingushetia from 467,294 to 516 693. In all three republics, 35-40% of population is 'below working age', aka under 18 years old.
If you look on a map:
These are TINY places. And very poor.
In Dagestan, for example, there is a very simple way of life. Most men in rural areas work as chabans, sheep herders:
The few women who work at all work on street markets in the local capital Makhachkala or other big city, Derbent: http://photopolygon.com/photo/fit/24.../38554.jpg.700
There are few cars, in the auls (villages). Most people ride horses or donkeys:
Except for local security and government leaders, who ride around in black SUVs without number plates: http://img11.nnm.ru/5/c/5/e/0/06cc6a...2a3de_prev.jpg
Dagestan is affluent, prosperous even, compared to Chechnya. Ingushetia I won't even mention. Still, 15% of the population is unemployed (40% in Chechnya, similar number in Ingushetia).
Because they have rapidly growing populations and very little land, or opportunity for study or good employment, many, primarily young, people have been moving to neighboring Stavropolie region. 500,000 people have settled in Northern Stavropol Krai in the last 10 years, mostly Chechens, Ingush, and Dagestanis (Dargins predominantly). And as they try to establish themselves there, this is causing constant, violent conflicts with, first of all, local, Terek, Cossacks: they too number in the hundreds of thousands there, have equally large families, fast growing numbers, close, strong, well armed, well organized clans, and happen to consider that land their ancestral 'votchina' (fatherland), and are not afraid to use force, including force of arms, to assert and defend that claim.
Those people live the lifestyle that they had lived for hundreds of years, breeding fine horses, working their farms (khutors), and fighting in the Russian Army:
Ethnic Russians have been leaving the area in recent years, with Russian population in villages bordering Dagestan fell by half. Some are taken in, reluctantly, by Cossacks, supposedly for protection, but really to be used for same purpose that Dargins capture them (Russians) for: as slave labor. Ethnic Russians are made to work on Cossack khutors and Dargin koshars for nothing or next to nothing, for food and a roof over their head. Majority do not have any documents or money, so nowhere and no way to run. And, no, I do not condone this.
Clashes between Cossacks and 'mountain people' have become often and bloody. In one town, the mayor, a Cossack woman, was burnt with her house; and afterward three entire Ingush families were murdered in the same way, apparently in revenge.
And in the local capital city of Stavropol, there had been mass brawls between Cossack youth on one side and young people, students mostly, from the mountains, on the other. And in last few months, there had been attacks on nighclubs and other venues catering to Chechen and Dagestani youth, in late times. Two or three cars would drive up, and gunmen from inside would fire. 5 people have already been killed this way, scores more wounded. It has been said the assailants are either local police or working in collaboration with local police (99% Cossacks). The region is on the brink of war, literally.
So, a solution being proposed is, believe it or not, putting a limit on reproduction in that whole region, for both mountaineers and Cossacks. Legislate a 2 child maximum or something.
I, personally, think it is a fine idea, IN THEORY. But it will never work in real life.
A. Anyone who walks into the home of a Chechen or a Cossack and tries to tell him and his wife (or wives in case of many Chechen families, polygamy is widespread there) how many children they can have would be lucky to make it back out alive.
B. Abortion is just not popular there, neither is birth control. Men hate wearing condoms, say it is uncomfortable; and women do not want to use The Pill, as they believe it is a sin against God (strangely enough, BOTH Muslim Chechen or Ingush and Orthodox Christian Cossack women believe this), and they think it can also make you infertile for life. Educating does not work, as girls there are taught, since childhood, to believe her husband and her parents above anyone else, and husbands or parents there usually would not tell his wife to use birth control.
So, I think if anyone in government will have the balls to try this, they will fail anyway. But, something does need to happen there. Before there is big blood.And those poor people who are enslaved, they need help too, first of all.